Standardized method for solubility and storage of capsaicin based solutions for cough induction



Preparation of inhaled capsaicin solutions for cough induction varies greatly from one lab to another, which creates inconsistencies between tussigenic challenge results. The addition of Tween to these capsaicin solutions provides increased solubility and stability; however, the foul taste of Tween makes inhaling the solution for any prolonged period of time unpleasant. We sought to create a standard method for preparing soluble and stable capsaicin-based solutions (in 10% ethanol/water), without the addition of Tween.


Capsaicin solutions were created at concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 μM in a variety of solvent systems, with and without Tween. Samples were stored in four different environments (-20°C, 3°C, and room temperature, protected from light; and room temperature, exposed to light) to test stability. Detection of capsaicin was carried out by UV absorption. A Grubb’s test was performed on all data to remove statistical outliers.


Similar capsaicin concentrations were seen for solutions prepared with or without Tween (Tween provided a slight increase in solubility), with neither solvent system providing complete solubility. Of the four environments tested, storing capsaicin solutions at 3°C while protected from light afforded the greatest stability, for a minimum of 30 weeks.


We recommend the use

A crossover randomized comparative study of zofenopril and ramipril on cough reflex and airway inflammation in healthy volunteers


This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.



Persistent dry cough is a well known unwanted effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i). Animal studies have shown that the ACE-i zofenopril has a less tussigenic effect compared to the widely used ACE-i ramipril. The aim of this study was to compare cough sensitivity to inhaled tussigens, as well as spontaneous cough in response to the administration of zofenopril and ramipril in healthy volunteers; pharmacokinetic (PK) data of both zofenopril and ramipril, as well as their respective active forms, zofenoprilat and ramiprilat, was also collected.


Forty healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. Patients were administered zofenopril calcium salt (test drug) coated tablets, 30 mg daily dose or ramipril (reference drug) tablets, 10 mg daily dose, for 7 consecutive days in two periods separated by a 21-day wash-out period. Cough sensitivity to capsaicin and

Coughing Badly – Why?

Whenever you cough and this is followed by mucus or sputum (phlegm) this is a indication that you have a virus inside your lungs. Coughing up mucus is generally caused by diverse things for instance allergies, common cold, bacterial infections or perhaps the cause of smoking cigarettes. Coughing phlegm most often happens in the mornings.

The key reason why men and women are coughing up mucus could possibly be divided into 2 main categories. Lets look at some information down below to determine exactly what could be a major contributor to this problem.

Different infections and germs

People who complain regarding mucus build-up upon waking generally are afflicted by viral or some bacterial infections for example the common cold or influenza. In case these kinds of viruses find a way in your throat or nasal passages the bacteria begin to generate a huge amount of mucus. That typically takes place throughout the night when you aren’t drinking something or clearing the throat. That is the reason whenever a person wakes up and requires to cough up all the built up phlegm.

Bronchitis, allergy symptoms or bronchial asthma are phrases in which the body builds lots of mucus. When your air passages are irritated by

Coughing treatment at home

It can be quite dry or mucus may produced. A cough is a sudden, often repetitive, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.

Coughing is a useful function and does not always mean there is a problem with your child. However, coughing at night, after going to sleep indicates the need for medical attention.”

Coughing usually means there is something in the respiratory passages that should not be there. This can be caused by breathing in dust particles in the air or when a piece of food goes down the wrong way. Some common causes of chronic cough include asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus problems (for example sinus infection), and esophageal reflux of stomach contents. In rare occasions, chronic cough may be the result of aspiration of foreign objects into the lungs (usually in children). It is very important to obtain a chest x-ray if a chronic cough is present. The following pertains to patients who have a normal chest x-ray.

There are many causes of cough. A thorough history and physical examination help the veterinarian decide which causes of cough are most likely in your pet and helps

Know more about Holistic Health Treatments

Holistic health and its treatments are not new. It is an age old concept but came into limelight these days. It is now become talk of the town and alluring many people towards the new concept of health care. The delay is because of headstrongness in the medical field and it is often slow to accept new ways of treatment.

Holistic health treatments are more an approach to how individuals should be treated rather than a treatment concept in and of itself. Those who practice holistic treatment believe that maintaining good health is more than simply taking care of the various parts of the body and it includes emotional and spiritual aspects as well. The primary objective of holistic health treatments is to achieve complete health, not simply a lack of disease or physical pain.

Holistic Health Treatments are not only based on treating physical symptoms but underlying psychological and emotional issues responsible for illness as well. In order to achieve total health, one should take into consideration, physicalHealth Fitness Articles, spiritual and emotional factors to devise an effective treatment plan.

The tendency of a person to overcome health issues depends also on his willpower and to revoke his

Health Savings Accounts

Most people with health insurance, especially employer paid health insurance, really don’t know what their health care costs are. Furthermore, in many cases, they are limited in which health providers (doctors, hospitals, pharmacies etc) they can use.

Most people are locked into a network of doctors. They know what the co-pay is, but have no idea what the doctor actually charges.

When insured consumers are hospitalized, they rarely see the bill. They don’t know if the insurance company was overcharged or not. There are firms that audit hospital bills for insurers and self insured companies. They get paid a percentage of what they save on the bill payer by finding overcharges, duplicate charges and the like. The last I heard these firms were still making lots of money.

Overcharging, whether deliberate or not, by doctors and hospitals drive up health care costs for all. (So do malpractice suits, but that’s another story.)

In order to give consumers more direct control not only over their health costs, but in the choice of which doctor they can see or which hospital they can enter, Congress enacted the Health Savings Account Availability Act. As of the beginning of 2004, individuals who are not otherwise insured can

Acquiring Cheap Health Insurance Easily

Health has always been a top issue among the people all over the world and they have been worrying about their health and the health of their loved ones for ages. Health insurance provides all the financial coverage that would be required for the person for his treatment for his bad health or any other kind of illness.

There are different types of health insurance schemes which cover different types of illnesses and hence the insurance companies set their rates accordingly. Acquiring cheap health insurance plans requires a lot of hard work and research so that the person does not end up in buying the wrong plan.

People from all over the world are in search of the cheapest health insurance plan which would provide them with the maximum coverage in that particular cost. But these days, as the numbers of diseases in the world are increasing, the cost of the health insurance plans provided by small and big insurance companies is also increasing continuously. But despite of the rising costs of the health insurance plans in the market, there are certain ways through which a person can get cheap health insurance plans for himself or his family members.

In order to acquire

Hearing Aids May Help Protect Brain Health

For several years, studies have linked hearing loss and dementia, but no major study has addressed the big question: Could using hearing aids reduce the risk of cognitive decline?

Now an important new French study finds that older adults who use hearing aids experience the same rate of cognitive decline as their peers with normal hearing. In other words, while hearing loss is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, hearing aids can slow that from happening, researchers say.

The study, published online last month in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, followed nearly 3,700 adults age 65 and older for 25 years, a remarkably long period. Nearly 1,300 reported major or moderate hearing loss, while about 2,400 said they had normal hearing. All were given annual questionnaires to fill out, as well as psychological testing every two to three years to assess cognitive skills.

Get discounts on hearing aids and more with your AARP Member Advantage »

Over the course of the study, the majority of subjects experienced some cognitive decline as they aged, but those with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids experienced that decline at an accelerated rate. Those who used hearing aids experienced cognitive decline at the same rate as

Herpes offers big insights on coughing

Cough treatments could change dramatically after the herpes virus helped researchers discover that the respiratory tract links to two different parts of the nervous system.

A research team led by The University of Queensland’s Dr Stuart Mazzone made the important breakthrough after setting out to learn more about the triggers behind excessive coughing.

“Different physical sensations arise from the upper and lower respiratory tracts in people with respiratory diseases,” said Dr Mazzone, from the School of Biomedical Sciences.

“The irritating sensations from the upper respiratory tract are a major driver of excessive coughing.

“Cough hypersensitivity is a debilitating symptom of more than 100 respiratory diseases, yet cough-suppressing treatments generally don’t work.”

Team member Dr Alice McGovern said the research team co-opted a specific strain of herpes virus, because of its ability to travel through the nervous system.

“Tracking this virus allowed us to understand the mechanisms behind the different respiratory sensations,” Dr McGovern said.

“It provided detailed information about nerve circuits in the upper airway region where ticklish and irritated throat sensations arise.

“By adding a fluorescent protein to the virus we were able to trace its movement from the respiratory system to the higher brain centres that encode sensations.”

Using this novel technology, developed by

How coughing is triggered by environmental irritants

Scientists have revealed how environmental irritants such as air pollution and cigarette smoke cause people to cough, in research published November 23 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. The authors of the study, from Imperial College London and the University of Hull, have identified the reaction inside the lungs that can trigger coughing when a person is exposed to particular irritants in the air. They suggest that their findings may ultimately lead to the development of new treatments for chronic coughing.

Coughing is the most common reason for people visiting a family doctor. Treatment options are limited for people with chronic coughing; a recent study concluded that over-the-counter remedies are ineffective and there is increasing concern about the safety of these therapies in children.

This new study indicates, for the first time, how coughing can be triggered when a person is exposed to certain irritants in the air. It shows that the irritants can switch on receptor proteins called TRPA1 on the surface of nerve endings in the lungs. This switches on sensory nerves, which then trigger a cough reflex. The researchers say coughing could potentially be treated by blocking TRPA1 receptors, to stop irritants

How to Stop Coughing

Though coughing is a healthy reflex that helps clear the airways, it can be an irritating or even debilitating nuisance. Whether you’re at home, at work, or just trying to sleep it can be painful and, at times, embarrassing. Depending on your type of cough, there are numerous steps to take to ease the pain of a raw throat. You can try home remedies for short-term coughs, but if it just won’t go away, you might need to see a doctor.

Method 1 of 4: The Annoying, Short-Term Cough

  1. Stay hydrated. Lovingly called postnasal drip, the stuff that comes out of your nose and trickles down your throat, ultimately irritating it, can be helped by drinking water. This thins out the mucus, making it more manageable for your throat.[1]

    • Unfortunately, this doesn’t mean eggnog. Water, as always, is best. Stay away from carbonated drinks and juices with high acidity levels–they may irritate your throat even more
  2. Keep your throat healthy. Though taking care of your throat doesn’t necessarily mean taking care of your cough (that’s often a symptom in itself),

7 Kinds of Coughs and What They Might Mean

Allergies? A cold? Acid reflux? No matter what the cause, there’s a simple reason behind all your hacking: “A cough is a protective mechanism to clear your airway,” explains Jonathan Parsons, MD, Director of the Cough Clinic at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

While it’s impossible to always pinpoint a cough by how it sounds, there are some key differences to give you clues as to what’s going on. Here’s how to tell what that cough really means.

Postnasal drip

Sounds like: Either a dry or wet cough. It’s caused by mucus dripping down your throat (due to either allergies or a cold), which tickles nerve endings, triggering coughing, Dr. Parsons says.

Other telltale symptoms: The cough is worse at night; there’s a tickly feeling at the back of your throat. If it’s due to allergies you may also have itchy eyes and sneezing.

Diagnosis and Rx: If you suspect allergies, try an over-the-counter antihistamine. But if that doesn’t help after a couple weeks, see your doctor, who can refer you to an allergist for skin testing. If it’s due to a residual cold, you can try natural remedies like saline washes and steam to help relieve congestion, but if the cough lingers for more than

Anatomy and Neurophysiology of Cough CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report

Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human.

Cough preserves the gas-exchanging functions of the lung by facilitating clearance of aspirate, inhaled particulate matter, accumulated secretions, and irritants that are either inhaled or formed at sites of mucosal inflammation. An impaired cough reflex can have acute, dire consequences.1-4 Under normal conditions, therefore, cough serves an

Whooping Cough

What is whooping cough?

Pertussis, or whooping cough, is less common in young children than it used to be, as the pertussis vaccine has made most children immune. Before this vaccine was developed, there were several hundred thousand cases of whooping cough each year in the United States. Now there are approximately 1 million cases a year in the US, but these are mostly in adults and adolescents.

This illness is caused by pertussis bacteria, which attack the lining of the breathing passages (bronchi and bronchioles), producing severe inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Severe coughing is a prominent symptom. If not recognized properly, the bacteria may spread to those in close contact with the infected person, through her respiratory secretions.

Who is at risk?

Infants under one year of age are at greatest risk of developing severe breathing problems and life- threatening illness from whooping cough. Because the child is short of breath, she inhales deeply and quickly between coughs. These breaths (particularly in older infants) frequently make a “whooping” sound—which is how this illness got its common name. The intense coughing scatters the pertussis bacteria into the air, spreading the disease to other susceptible persons.


Pertussis often acts like a common

Symptom Free Carriers May Be Spreading Whooping Cough

Rapid increase in whooping cough may largely be a result of transmission from people who are infected with the bacterium but show no symptoms of disease, a new study suggests.

The incidence of whooping cough, also known as pertussis, has been increasing steeply in the United States since the early 2000s. In 2014, there were more than 28,000 cases, while from 1970 to 2001, there were never more than 8,000 cases in a year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But the reasons are unclear.

Various explanations have been suggested — the protection afforded by the vaccine wanes over time; the bacterium has evolved to evade immunity; vaccine coverage has not been wide enough. But this study has found that although all these factors probably contribute, asymptomatic transmission may be the most important cause of all. The study is in BMC Medicine.

Benjamin M. Althouse and Samuel V. Scarpino, postdoctoral fellows at the Santa Fe Institute, a nonprofit research center, tracked infections through three time periods: 1920-45, when no vaccination was available; 1946-2005, when the whole cell vaccine was used; and 2006-13, when the whole cell vaccine was replaced with the acellular version. (The whole-cell vaccine

Healthy Treatments Tips for Coughing Relief

Coughing is an interference of the breathing responses
to airflow. A natural air effect common to a respiratory
condition, coughing is the airway to breathing congestion
and sensitivities.

There are many different kinds of treatments prescribed for
coughing. My prescription includes (a) drinking your
favorite “hot” teas and broths daily; (b) taking warm oil
baths or showers nightly prior to bed time while rubbing or
massaging your body with your favorite herbal oils during
your bath or shower; (c) sitting quietly inhaling and
exhaling through the nostrils; (d) sipping lukewarm water at
room temperature frequently and slowly dissolving the water
through the esophagus during the day; (e) keeping warm as
much as you can; (f) having someone to massage your upper
back and chest areas, such as a trusted friend, companion or
massage therapist. These remedies soothe, cleanse and clear
the blocking of the airways reducing the cough.

Persistent nasal drips, pollens, dust, chemicals, fumes of
various kinds irritating the lungs and esophagus (throat
area), producing mucous, straining the muscles in the
abdomen and chest are related to the symptoms of coughing.

By replacing the loss of fluids in the body, clearing the
blocking of the airways and relaxing the muscles throughout

Man who woke up coughing is shocked to learn he had swallowed his FALSE TEETH while asleep

A man who began coughing for two days was shocked to be told he had swallowed a part of his denture while asleep.

The 55-year-old Indian man came to A&E complaining of difficulty swallowing, a feeling of tightness in his chest and a cough for two days.

He explained he had a suffered a condition which caused him to have seizures since he was a child, and took regular anti-epileptic medicine.

A week ago, he had a seizure while wearing his false teeth, said doctors describing his case in the journal BMJ Case reports.

A man, 55, who began coughing and having trouble swallowing for two days was found to have swallowed a part of his denture while asleep. Pictured is an X-ray of the denture (circled in red) in his oesophagus

The man swallowed a large part of his false teeth which had a pointy clasp (shown by the red arrow). It got stuck 32cm down his oesophagus

When he woke up from the episode, he found a piece of his denture lying on the floor.

He searched for the other part, but couldn’t

CDC Removed Info On Coughing And Sneezing From Ebola Q&A

WASHINGTON — The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has quietly removed some Ebola information from its website. The changes follow claims from news outlets and conservative blogs that the agency hasn’t been forthcoming about how the virus spreads, but it was not clear on Thursday afternoon whether the removal was related to the reports.

The New York Post reported Tuesday that the agency “admitted” Ebola can be contracted through casual contact with a doorknob, seemingly contrary to the CDC’s insistence that Ebola is only transmissible through direct contact with bodily fluids from a person sick with the disease. The Post cited a page on the CDC’s website that said Ebola spreads through droplets that can travel short distances when a sick person coughs or sneezes.

Meryl Nass, an internal medicine physician in Ellsworth, Maine, first highlighted the page on her own blog over the weekend.

The page was a PDF document that explained the difference between infections spread through the air or by droplets. The PDF had been taken down as of Thursday afternoon, with this message in its place: “The What’s the difference between infections spread through air or by droplets? Fact sheet is being updated and is currently unavailable. Please

Coughing Up Blood Hemoptysis

Coughing up blood (hemoptysis) can be a sign of a serious medical condition. Infections, cancer, and problems in blood vessels or in the lungs themselves can be responsible. Coughing up blood generally requires medical evaluation unless the hemoptysis is due to bronchitis.

Causes of Hemoptysis

There are many potential reasons for coughing up blood. Causes for coughing blood include:

Bronchitis (acute or chronic), the most common cause of coughing up blood. Hemoptysis due to bronchitis is rarely life-threatening.
Lung cancer or non-malignant lung tumors
Use of blood thinners (anticoagulation)
Pulmonary embolism
Congestive heart failure, especially due to mitral stenosis
Inflammatory or autoimmune conditions (lupus, Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and many others)
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)
Crack cocaine
Trauma, such as a gunshot wound or motor vehicle accident
Dieulafoy’s disease

Hemoptysis can also come from bleeding outside the lungs and airways. Severe nosebleeds or vomiting of blood from the stomach can result in blood draining into the windpipe (trachea). The blood is then coughed up, appearing as hemoptysis.

In many people with hemoptysis, no cause is ever identified. Most people with unexplained hemoptysis are no longer coughing up blood six months later.
Hemoptysis Tests

In people who are coughing up blood, testing

Whooping cough Treatment

Treating whooping cough

Whooping cough is usually treated with antibiotics at home. Young babies (less than a year old) with whooping cough may need hospital treatment to avoid developing complications.

Babies and young children

Children admitted to hospital to be treated for whooping cough, are usually treated in isolation. This means they will be kept away from other patients to prevent the infection spreading.

Your child may need to be given antibiotics intravenously (straight into a vein through a drip).

If your child is severely affected, they may also need corticosteroid medication to reduce inflammation (swelling) in the airways, making it easier to breathe. Like antibiotics, corticosteroids may be given intravenously.

If your child needs additional help with breathing, they may be given extra oxygen through a facemask. A handheld device called a bulb syringe may also be used to gently suction away any mucus that is blocking their airways.

Severe whooping cough in young babies

Young babies can be severely affected by whooping cough and it can cause significant damage to their lungs. Therefore, they may need a high level of support in hospital, involving:

  • ventilation to support their lungs
  • intravenous medicine to support their blood pressure

If these measures fail, the baby may need extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This is similar to a

I’ve Got Whooping Cough Thanks a Lot Jenny McCarthy.

At this writing, I have been coughing for 72 days. Not on and off coughing, but continuously, every day and every night, for two and a half months. And not just coughing, but whooping: doubled over, body clenched, sucking violently for air, my face reddening and my eyes watering. Sometimes, I cough so hard, I vomit. Other times, I pee myself. Both of these symptoms have become blessedly less frequent, and I have yet to break a rib coughing—also a common side effect. Nor do I still have the fatigue that felled me, often, at my desk and made me sleep for 16 hours a night on the weekends. Now I rarely choke on things like water, though it turns out laughing, which I do a lot of, is an easy trigger for a violent, paralyzing cough that doctors refer to not as a cough, but a paroxysm.

Since I came down with pertussis, more commonly known as whooping cough, waking up on Saturday, August 31, with what felt like a light fever and a tightness in my chest, I’ve celebrated the Jewish high holidays, covered Washington’s response to the crisis in Syria, hosted several out of town friends and a

Medical Mysteries She couldn’t stop coughing Were fragrances to blame?

Vickie Harwood was sick of feeling like an outcast.

For nearly six months beginning last July, Harwood had been sequestered in an office by herself, far removed from the large room full of cubicles where her co-workers sat. Being alone in an office with a fan running and the door closed seemed to be the only way to quell her uncontrollable coughing fits triggered by perfume or other strong fragrances.

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Harwood worried that some of her colleagues might be skeptical about what appeared to be a dramatic worsening of the adult-onset asthma with which she had been diagnosed 20 years earlier.

“I felt like the girl in the bubble,” said Harwood, 61, who lives in Phoenix. Because desk assignments at the giant consulting firm where she works as an administrative assistant are based on rank — private offices are reserved for senior managers — Harwood worried that her colleagues suspected she might be milking her illness to secure an office.

Several made it clear they were put off by the measures she took to avoid a coughing fit. “People would get offended if I had to stand away from them” while having a conversation, she recalled.

Although doctors initially